“How to Start a Cement Mill Business”
Comment Page 1

  • karthik said on June 27, 2013
    hi, I am going to start a cement mill company in Chennai. Please tell me the investment, area require, materials, and procedure to start a company
  • sukhen mandal said on June 29, 2013
    Hi sir, this is sukhen mandal, Actually i need a suggestion related to developing cement industry or i want to make a project over that. kindly suggest me as soon as possible.
  • awadhesh tomar said on July 4, 2013
    i am student of mba. i want to start my own cement factory plz help me how to install factory. how many land use, money, equipment and required things.
  • Harish said on July 5, 2013
    Andhra-Tamil Nadu border near Nagari (India) for starting a mini cement plant. Is it feasible to start the said plant with 50 lakhs?
  • k.sandeep said on July 11, 2013
    I want to start a small cement plant. please help me how to get license, please contact me 9959222973, e-mail :sandeepnaidu4321@gmail.com
  • snehal sune said on August 4, 2013
    i want to know about how to take the cement agency and how much capital we required to start it? please let me know in detail.
  • Magnificent Maqhawe Dladla said on August 7, 2013
    Zeemaq (Pty) Ltd is a start-up entity that, it's core business is construction.Zeemaq is based on Mandeni area, in South Africa. Zeemaq is wishing to have full quotation on how to start a cement mill.We have done our own research in the area, and noted there are no company conducting this business. We have check our infrastructure and found out we need this kind of business.Mandeni is developing, at fast rate. Please send us any information that will assist our business to excel in this sector. We hope our request will meet you at favorable conditions. Yours Respectfully, M.M. Dladla (Managing Director)
  • Naveenkumar DN said on August 21, 2013
    Sir I interested to start a cement factory at nanjangud taluk Mysore dist so please give me a full cost quotation include machine and construction
  • Zaw Htet said on August 24, 2013
    my cement plant location is in kyangin township, Ayeyarwady division , Myanmar. i need the estimating cost for building cement plant for dry process. if you can , i want sample estimating.
  • Arshad A. Khan said on September 5, 2013
    Please guide me how to start a wholesale cement business.
  • Mabaleha Solomon said on October 22, 2013
    what is the recommended or minimum size of the land and the building for new cement industry
  • Paseka Rasego said on October 24, 2013
    Hi, I really need to start my own cement business in my area! Its been my dream to own my own cement company, so please help me out on this one.
  • sujan sarkar said on November 2, 2013
    i want to start my own business so please send me the details. siliguri, west bengal, india
  • somesh said on November 4, 2013
    how to set up an industry, investment how much required, i want to establish in odisha how
  • nitin hiwale said on November 11, 2013
    hi sir, i am nitin going to start mini cement plant plz tell me cost and procedure to start cement plant
  • Mark Terbish said on November 16, 2013
    Hi, I'm looking for a partner or an investor who is willing to build a Cement Mill in Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar. I have a big land to built such factory and all other necessary things, Cement is always in high demand in Mongolia, Its always imported from China with very high price , Please contact me iigoom11@yahoo.com for more details. Thanks
  • prashant said on November 25, 2013
    I want start small scale mini cement plant I want to know about its machinery & project cost required all details, please send. Best regards Prashant
  • tushar said on November 26, 2013
    I want start small scale mini cement plant and i want to know about its machinery, project cost, required area, required manpower, required raw material and its availability in bihar. Bhagalpur.plz help me. Thank you.
  • Vrajlal karia said on December 6, 2013
    hi guys, we are going to set up mini cement plant VSK base 80 tonne per day in UGANDA, Machineries is ready to erect, Land site fixed and purchased. Total project cost is USD 800000( Eight lacs), Now the further project ongoing work ,we need business partner for investment of USD 400000(four lacs). Please contact if interested. Thanks ( e-mail id. vpkaria2000@yahoo.com)
  • arunkumar said on December 27, 2013
    Hi guys i'm writing this from tamilnadu, i have an idea of stating up a mini cement plant of capacity 100TPD, so please help me out in knowing all the details about starting a cement plant. Expecting your reply.
  • Nagaraj udupi said on January 3, 2014
    planning mini cement factory in Bijapur district of Karnataka state
  • Vijay Kumar Pant beginner adviser said on January 6, 2014
    Cement is Going to be a handsome business In India as even today the per capita consumption is far below.as almost all the limestone reserve is occupied. some areas are left and that too controled by few individuals who don't have enough money to put up cement plants. smaller units do not have future so people wish to go for 2 MTPA size complete cement plant now a days with latest technology. power and enviornment both are serious issues for any government so putting up small and vsk technology units are not recommended. We know few people who have such mines available we can help those who wish to invest in India.we also know some unexplored area where cement grade limestone is available. interested people may contact @vktopcem@yahoo.co.in +919007016240. Thank You

    vktopcem@yahoo.co.in || Consultant

  • Sukanta roy said on January 28, 2014
    Hi sir, I am sukanta roy, want to know about how to take the cement agency and how much capital we required to start it? please let me know in detail.my email id-mon9145@gmail.com Mobile no-09093562100
  • jk said on February 18, 2014
    we have planned to setup a mini cement plant in Salem district. Let me know the details of how much land area is required and how much investment is required for that
  • ABHISHEK SEHGAL said on February 25, 2014
    hi this is abhishek sehgal from prakash industries from west bengal. kolkata. we expertise in setting up a cement plant .rotary kiln, vertical shaft kiln, white metal ball mill, tyre roller ball mill we are in this business from 30 years and have completed setting up 80 and more units of cement unit in eastern india .any one wants to set up a grinding unit please feel free to contact on this number 09748744430/09831401061 .we have our own manufacturing unit as well in west bengal as well.
  • Utpal Kumar SenGupta said on February 27, 2014
    Hi All, If any one wants to build cement or lime factory can contact me. I have total 44+ years of experience in this field. Call me at +91-9818606452 (Mobile) or mail me at uksengupta2004@yahoo.com. Regards, U K SenGupta, New Delhi, INDIA
  • dipesh gulani said on March 16, 2014
    I am interested to start my own cement factory in Indore, M.P. ,India
  • vijay Kumar said on March 18, 2014
    Hi @dipesh gulani, What exactly you want to do? setup a complete cement plant or a Grinding unit? if you want to setup a complete cement do you have sufficient limestone reserve? for better understanding of the situation contact me. Best regards, Vijay kumar Vktopcem@yahoo.co.in
  • Akhilesh kumar singh said on March 23, 2014
    I am b.tech mechanical having complete knowledge about cement industry i can install complete cement plant in very low cost i am b.tech mechanical. if any one want my service permanent or contractual basis email me akhileshsngh6@gmail.co
  • arup said on March 25, 2014
    hi i am simple b.com student , have pass-out 4 year ago , and planing to set up cement business, can u tell me the legal process from beginning, what i have to to at first , and what capital should we invest , pls sir can you give me the detail .
  • neeraj kumar said on March 27, 2014
    sir, what is the minimum investment is required for cement industry,
  • jp singh said on March 28, 2014
    planning mini cement mill ln sidhavan bhadohi up
  • Subrata Bhaumik said on April 3, 2014
    Contact Subrata Bhaumik 00 91 98738 53170
  • amit gupta said on April 24, 2014
    hello sir good morning, sir i want to open a cement plant please tell me how much capital required and which place will be better my current city lotion is allahabad
  • Aditya Singh Rana said on May 10, 2014
    i wanna start a small cement factory. how much capital is required for that.
  • umar farooq said on May 12, 2014
    i wanna start a small cement factory in d.g.k any one interested for investment. contact me at 03346764543, mail umar_uet@yahoo.com
  • mahmoud said on May 24, 2014
    i want to start a small cement factory too, but dont know the processes
  • Govind Raghu Chandran said on May 28, 2014
    Dear Sir, Kindly answer this questions? Do you have Limestone mines which containing calcium carbonate 90% and above. In your country is there any cement plant? I can forward all the details after receiving all your information at from your end. GOLDEN STAR VENTURES COMPANY / SPONGYTECH, MIG-9/A "DREAM-VILLA" CGHB KOTA COLONY RAIPUR - 492010 (C.G.)INDIA, TEL/MOB: +91 2575310 / 9425285277 Skype: govind.chandran1 / gsvc.india20131, E-mail: goldenstarventures@gmail.com, gsvc.project@rediffmail.com, spongytech@gmail.com
  • Chandra shaker reddy.s. said on May 29, 2014
    I own 100 ac. Oc land adjoing to mine located to penna cements at kurnool dt. A.p. I can extract lime stone from my land in 20 ac. can you advice me what are the business opportunities for me by using the said Raw material available in my own land.
  • kundan sharma said on May 30, 2014
    I want to start a mini cement mill. Please send the Quotation of this
  • kasandra said on July 3, 2014
    I want to start a mini cement mill. Please send the Quotation of this
  • Pedro Souza said on July 4, 2014
    Look, mill plants and cement plants are capital intensive. An average expected production must be about 250tons/day or more. You'll need a clinker supplyer (clinker is the main component of the cement - to produce clinker you'll need a mine, kilns, crushers and much more money), the mills (you can use FLSmidth Atox or OK Mills, or use a regular ball mill, but these ones are electricity intensive), a sacking machine, palletizers, a laboratory to make tests and tries, a bag filter, and many other industrial facilities. You'll need at least two silos: one for clinker and other for the cement you dont sell. Remember: cement lasts only 60 days, after that it stones. Remember: your stock must not last longer than two or three days. if thats happening its because you have no market. Be sure to have a regular clinker supply. Daily. The mills must not stop. The investment for a 250tons/day plant is about 50 million dollars. The payback is about 3 or 4 years if everything go well. Doubts to: pedrosouzal@hotmail.com
  • Chandrakant said on July 11, 2014
    I would like to know complete details along with Government clearances for putting a 10-20 MT per day cement Grinding Unit in Chattisgarh. What would be expected cost for 10 MT/perday, 20/MT perday & 30MT/day capacity plant. What would be the expected expenditure including everything.
  • navin sah said on July 15, 2014
    i want to start a cement mill. i have two place 1st KOLKATA and 2nd RANCHI. please detail about this and very important that estimate budget for this. THANK YOU.
  • Balakrishnan said on August 6, 2014
    Please contact me in my email I'd. I can give solutions for all queries related to cement business. Balakrishnanid@yahoo.com
  • gudivada chandrasekhara rao said on August 18, 2014
    dear sir, i am chandrasekhar completed b'tech, i decided to stated the cement industry in rajam, srikakulam(dist), andarapradesh(stat). sir plz guide me how to start & minimum required investment plz send details in my mail(chandrasekharg.13@gmail.com,9542581001). thank you sir.
  • Ibrahim said on August 23, 2014
    Dear Sir/Madam, I Am looking for investors in Cement Business in Africa, Any body willing to Invest in this sector, can you please email me.. Will market share to build a cement mill. my email is here as follow: maxjohn52@gmail.com. thanks
  • MajorDistributor beginner adviser said on August 27, 2014
    START CEMENT BUSINESS HERE IN NIGERIA WITHOUT TOO MUCH STRESS

    Starting a Cement Business here in Nigeria is not that hard compared to what people are saying. To start as a Distributor - First, You need to start a company whose business is registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission of Nigeria.

    Once you have your company registered which is a little bit simple to do and requires just a little amount of money, let's say N45,000 to N50,000. After you have that sorted out, the next thing to do is to open a corporate account in any Nigerian bank with the company name. After opening your account then you get a reference letter from the bank and proceed to Dangote or any other Cement Company to do your registration.

    Dangote Registration normally take like 48 hours maximum and No Application/Registration deposit is required. That is to say, the registration is free!
    After Dangote has registered you, the other things you need to put in place are:
    1. A warehouse with enough space to store your stock.
    2. Arrange for Supply.
    Dangote Cement is on Promotion right now and we are selling at N1,000 per bag! Delivery is guaranteed within 48HRS after booking.
    Call the Dangote Cement Factory Promotion Hot line on: 08130681411 to order now! Our mode of payment is pay on delivery for registered dealers. We deliver to anywhere within and outside the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

    impoundedcarsauction@gmail.com || Consultant

  • Akhilesh kumar singh said on August 29, 2014
    respected sir my self akhilesh having knowledge of complete project of cement plant if u want my succession please contact me at 07352186407 and email I'd akhileshsngh6@gmail.com
  • Raju beginner adviser said on September 16, 2014
    @arunkumar sl.no 120 and jk.sl no 124 Please contact bhaskaran286@gmail.com

    bhaskaran286@gmail.com || Consultant

  • mohan said on September 16, 2014
    we have planned to setup a 50tpd complete automatic mini cement plant near cheannai let me know the details of how much land required and how much investment is required for that
  • mohan said on September 16, 2014
    we have planed to setup a 50 tpd complete automatic mini cement plant let me know the details of how much investment is required for that mohan80j@gmail.com
  • shailendra barai said on September 20, 2014
    i want to start cement factory ..mini plant, i am from nepal ...plz send me the details ....price of factory..per hour production wats metric ton
  • Meljo said on September 30, 2014
    I am staying in ernakulam, Kerala, INDIA. can u just let me know the details about investment in cement mill business. just let me know everything in detail. i would be very thankful to u...
  • satyam patel said on October 3, 2014
    i am from jabalpur MP and i m very interested to invest in cement mill and i want to open a cement plant in my area so plzz give me some ideas and details about cement factory.. how much capital require to start cement plant
  • Akhilesh kumar singh said on October 12, 2014
    i am very happy to see that u all want cement plant my self akhilesh kumar singh i have worked many project of cement plant according to your investment i can install mini cement plant ,i worked 100 tph to 1000tph project i am mechanical engineer ready to join any organization for cement project if any one need my service mail me at akhileshsngh6@gmail.com
  • Mohit Rawal said on October 20, 2014
    if any one want land to setup industry of any type,I've good location for setup industry, mohitrawal78@gmail.com
  • vilas landage said on October 20, 2014
    I am interested in cement business. can I help me about its guidance? I will start business but I have no lot of knowledge. please help me yours faithfully, vilas landge.
  • Sukhvir Singh said on October 20, 2014
    hi, I'd like to know what are the requirements on starting a cement company in africa and the facts to consider? please do let me know id really appreciate it . you can whats app me on +254788888668
  • vignesh said on October 21, 2014
    I want to start a cement factory in India how I can start what are the necessary steps
  • Pallavi boruah said on October 28, 2014
    I'm from Assam . And I want to start either a packaging drinking water factory or to set up a mini cement plant. So sir kindly send me the procedure and amount of capital required to start this business.
  • Raju.patil said on October 29, 2014
    I am staying in bijapur, Karanataka, INDIA. can u just let me know the details about investment in cement mill business. Please guide me the capital requirement in detail and land size & everything in detail. i would be very thankful to u .
  • Samer Darwish said on November 12, 2014
    we need to set up a cement plant in Kuwait , government license is issued and land available , and looking for professionals to help in part investing / starting and building such plant EP or EPC .
  • Jesus Martinez said on December 11, 2014
    I'm an architect and entrepreneur who recently move to Texas, I have seen some potential in a cement plant mill around this area and I will like to get some more in detail information about the equipment needed and process to set up a cement plant, mainly to sell concrete mixture and probably some CMU block and pavers, I would very tankful if you can provide to me such information
  • harsha king said on December 20, 2014
    I want to build a cement plant near by anantapur, andhra pradesh, india. can u say that how must investment is needed to build it. And what are the things ir materials needed for it.
  • Raju beginner adviser said on December 28, 2014
    Any body interested to start a mini cement plant in Karur, Tamil Nadu please contact. Limestone land for miniplant is available. bhaskaran286@gmail.com

    bhaskaran286@gmail.com || Consultant

  • Vishnudayalpareek said on January 21, 2015
    I am mini cement plant, long experience, in setting up plant capacity, 100 tpd tp 500 tpd cement plant indian technology, and chiness. Right now i am involved in nepal 300 tpd plant
  • Swapnil Mane said on January 27, 2015
    Dear sir, I start the mini cement manufacturing plant but these plant have actually not idea of the cost of plant. Please details of the send my email id. My plant manufacturing cement for 5tpd these way I start mini cement plant
  • Arjun patidar said on March 8, 2015
    i want to do cement mill plant business, send me quotations for cement mill plant & full details how start a business please
  • Vishnudayalpareek said on March 30, 2015
    I am consultant for mini cement plant guidance, for setting up 50 to 500 tpd vsk cement plant
  • md ayaz uddin sikdar said on March 31, 2015
    Sir, i am a student of bba finance in chittagong university. I want to set up a new cement factory business. Actually i don't know how to set up and steps i perform. So please sir suggest me how i set up my new business in bangladesh
  • Philberg Siri said on April 24, 2015
    i am looking forward to setting up a cement manufacturing plant in Ivory Coast (West Africa). kindly send me the quotations for the plant. I would really appreciate it.
  • Subrata Bhaumik said on June 2, 2015
    If any one wants to build cement factory of capacity ranging from 100 to 10000 tpd, he can contact me. I have total 49 (Forty Nine) Years of Experience in Cement and other related Industry, covering entire Industry spectrum viz. Technology development, Engineering and Project Management, preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report including Financial analysis of projects for arrangement of loan and equity, Market Survey, Basic and Detailed Engineering, Project Management, Construction and Erection supervision, Plant Commissioning and Trouble shooting, Plant Optimization and Rationalization of Operational Cost covering more than 100 assignments in cement plants with capacities ranging from 100 tpd to 10,000 tpd in India and abroad involving visit to 25 countries overseas in connection with work in cement projects, Engineering work in captive Thermal power plant and metallurgical industry viz. High Titanium Slag project. Worked in reputed companies viz. AVB, Holtec, Birlas, DCPL, ThyssenKrupp, ERCOM, MESCO STEEL and BQB in India and abroad. Call me at +919873853170 (Mobile) or mail me at subratabhaumik@rediffmail.com or subrata.subrato@gmail.com Regards, Subrata Bhaumik, Gurgaon, INDIA
  • Subrata Bhaumik said on June 3, 2015
    @ramesh kumar Sir, Please send me a mail, giving location, capacity planned, investment you have in mind for my needful. Please contact Subrata Bhaumik 09873853170 subratabhaumik@rediffmail.com Regards, Subrata Bhaumik
  • pratik sonthalia said on July 16, 2015
    I also want to start a cement factory with small amount. please give me all the information in my email id -sonthalia.pratik1@gmail.com
  • Kgosi said on August 5, 2015
    Hi, I leave in Centurion, Gauteng, SA. I would like to know about the cost of investing in a small cement manufacturing plant? Secondly what kind of training is needed to run such a business. I identified that some parts of our country are not serviced for such industry. Warm regards. Kgosi Marogoa (kmaorogoa@outlook.com)
  • saurabh said on August 22, 2015
    hello myself saurabh and i am a engineer belong from Maharashtra. actually i had planned for set-up new cement factory which had been a large scale profit here due to a metro n under construction project are in boom . And also my contact here i had to set it urgently but the problem is i dont get it the equipment n logistics list way to go so if anyone interested to joint or come with me it welcome ..(09595527831) (saurabhdzade@gmail.com)
  • Arghya Pratim Roy said on September 15, 2015
    I want to start a cement mill in Kolkata,India. I want a quotation & the assumption of the capital required..
  • Nitin said on October 8, 2015
    I want to know starting investment of small cement plant/mill. UP, INDIA
  • Arun Mathur said on October 26, 2015
    for cement plant most suitable place is chittorgarh in rajasthan. i have 100 bigha land near chittorgarh with a good deposit of lime stone. suitable for mini cement plant CACO3---83.43%
    MGCO3---02.54%
    TOTAL CABONATES--85.97%
    arun@kingsoncrusher.com
  • vijay Kumar said on December 30, 2015
    HI I AM A CEMENT PROJECT PROFESSIONAL WITH MORE THEN 25 YEARS OF THE EXPERIENCE ON CEMENT INDUSTRY UP TO 2MTPA CEMENT PLANTS.I KNOW ABOUT A CEMENT GRADE LIMESTONE MINES VERY CLOSE TO NEW DELHI.THE OWNER HAVE GOT MINING LEASE FOR 1000 HECTARE LANDVALID FOR 60 YEARS.POTENTIAL INVESTORS FOR CEMENT PLANT MORE THEN 1 MTPA CAPACITY CAN CONTACT ME.MY MAIL ID VKTOPCEM@YAHOO.CO.IN.THANK YOU.
  • Sahil Gupta said on March 21, 2016
    Me and my friends want to start a mini cement plant in Jammu. May you please share all the details starting from the very beginning.Project cost, capital required, raw material and all other necessary details.
  • itani ndou said on April 5, 2016
    I live in south Africa and intend to start a cement manufacturing plant, there is a lot of potential. Please would you please connect me with someone who travelled a same road. Contact me at itani.ndou@gmail.com
  • itani ndou said on April 5, 2016
    I intend to start a cement manufacturing plant in south Africa, can I please get a team of experts to join hands and realise this dream.If there is someone who have already have a plant please would that person assit me or can we partner to start this in south Africa, we may also expand to other neighbouring states. Please contact me urgently at itani.ndou@gmail.com
  • Atul gupta said on June 11, 2016
    I want to start my business of cement also settled a factory for production of product tell me total cost of plant for asbestes sheet and bricks pls inform me...... 9630545574
  • karabo motshebe said on June 23, 2016
    i am karabo lives in Botswana, Gaborone. I want to start a cement packaging business, please send me more information
  • james said on October 10, 2016
    I am james from ghana, i want to set up a CEMENT PLANT, in my country. i need my information on how to set up....
  • PRAVESH said on November 23, 2016
    I Want to Start a Cement Plant. Please Send me Details with Cost of Plant Details. Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, INDIA.
  • TARUN said on December 14, 2016
    I am interested in Cement Plant establishment in my country. Kindly send the Business Plan, Procurement of Plant machineries, Power Supply Unit inclusion within the Plan. How to proceed with worldwide marketing strategies would be welcomed in the Business Plan. Thanks!
  • Shailendra Mathur beginner adviser said on January 11, 2017
    @ITANI NDOW, We would like to get more details like capacity of the Cement Plant you want to establish as smaller plants will be based on VSK technology & bigger plant will be dry process based on Rotary Kiln Technology. We can provide turn key solutions for Cement & Steel industry.

    shailendramathurdelhi@gmail.com || Cement Manufacturing Business Adviser

  • Ram Dayal Mundel said on January 11, 2017
    Hi all i want to open my white cement plan but i am living in gotan nagaur rajasthan where their is two big white cement jk and birla are already their let me know how i can stabilized new plan because limestone quality is to good i am living in that area only. Regards, Ram Dayal Mundel
  • vikrant kumar said on February 3, 2017
    i also want to established mini cement plant in begusarai, bihar, i want a partner for this operation on 50-50% basis, i have all the things for mini cement plant with good marketing, The investment of the operational partner is minimum 50-60 Lakh, my contact no is 9313373115, if any one interested than call me, my mail id is vikrant9102@gmail.com,
  • vikrant kumar said on February 3, 2017
    IF any one want to invest 50-60 lakh for at least for one year, than i also agree on mini cement plant.
  • Farooq said on April 24, 2017
    Hi all, i am having 1 Acre Commercial Premises to Establish Mini Cement Plant in & around LIME CITY i.e., (PIDUGURALLA), Near : AMARAVATHI, ANDHRA PRADESH. You can contact me on farsha07@gmail.com or 8885773452
  • Raju beginner adviser said on June 27, 2017

    @TARUN your email id p

    bhaskaran286@gmail.com || Consultant

  • Rashid beginner adviser said on August 2, 2018
    I'm Rashid Mkocha from Tanzania in east africa, More Cement needed in Tanzania and more marketable, I'm looking for investors who can startup Cement industry in Tanzania and I will give services to get the investment site and give all necessary approval. Anybody interested to do business contact me via rashidmkocha8419@gmail.com watsapp numbers +255752430205

    rashidmkocha8419@gmail.com || Consultant

  • Joe said on November 10, 2018
    We want to start a cement plant in Ondo State Southwest Nigeria. We are ready to commit a total fund of 10 -20 millions USD and daily production of 300- 500 metric tonnes at the start. Feasibility had proved commercial quantity limestone deposit which can last over 500 years available with the State. We are looking for technical partners for the exploitation the limestone from the ground We are presently residing in the USA and planning to relocate to Africa very soon. Our contact telephone number 4045048205
  • Theresa DeJager said on February 7, 2019
    Good Day I'm currently working for a company. We would like to know what would the clear costing be for establishing a Cement Plant In South Africa Midrand. we are also looking for 3 reputable consulting companies to assist us with developing top notch funding proposals.
  • Benjamin said on July 12, 2019
    i want to set up a cement factory in hyderabad, investement in place, kindly contact me on 8332099993.
  • 0
  • (1)

Comment

(All the above fields are required.)